Diamond is hard because the carbon atoms in diamond are bonded in a stronger tetrahedron pattern but graphite is soft and slippery because the carbon atoms in graphite are bonded in layers with only weak vanderwall force holding the layers together.
Why is graphite soft and diamond very hard?
The carbon atoms in graphite appear to bond with weaker intermolecular forces, allowing the layers to move over one another. The weak intermolecular forces are known as the weak Van der Waals forces. Therefore, diamond is hard but graphite is soft and slippery even though both have carbon present in them.
Why is graphite The softest?
Each layer is a planar sheet, composed of hexagonal rings of carbon atoms, with 3 electrons of each atom involved in single bonds with three adjacent atoms of hexagonal ring. The extra electron makes a very weak bond with the adjacent layer. The inter-layer distance can be easily changed. This makes graphite very soft.
Why is diamond so hard?
The outermost shell of each carbon atom has four electrons. In diamond, these electrons are shared with four other carbon atoms to form very strong chemical bonds resulting in an extremely rigid tetrahedral crystal. It is this simple, tightly-bonded arrangement that makes diamond one of the hardest substances on Earth.
Why is graphite softer than diamond GCSE?
This means that each carbon atom has a ‘spare’ electron (as carbon has four outer electrons) which is delocalised between layers of carbon atoms. These layers can slide over each other, so graphite is much softer than diamond.
Is anything stronger than diamond?
(PhysOrg.com) — Currently, diamond is regarded to be the hardest known material in the world. But by considering large compressive pressures under indenters, scientists have calculated that a material called wurtzite boron nitride (w-BN) has a greater indentation strength than diamond.
Why is graphite so soft and slippery?
The layers in graphite can slide over each other because the forces between them are weak. This makes graphite slippery, so it is useful as a lubricant .
Why graphite is soft and slippery?
Graphite features several layers with each layer featuring a hexagonal arrangement of carbon atoms. Theese layers have the ability to slide over each other, owing to the weak the forces between them. This sliding is what makes graphite slippery and a relatively good lubricant.
What makes graphite and diamonds different?
Graphite and diamond are two of the most interesting minerals. They are identical chemically – both are composed of carbon (C), but physically, they are very different. … Graphite is very soft and has a hardness of 1 to 2 on this scale. Diamonds are the hardest known natural substance and have a hardness of 10.
Can you break a diamond with a hammer?
Can you Break a Diamond with a Hammer? Yes, technically speaking, you can break a diamond with a hammer, but it will be very hard to actually do it. In most cases, you can smash a hammer over your diamond and it will do nothing to it.
How old is the youngest diamond?
Every natural diamond is immensely old, formed long before dinosaurs roamed the earth. The youngest diamond is 900 million years old, and the oldest is 3.2 billion years old.
Why is diamond hard kids?
The tight structure of covalent bonds between carbon atoms creates a rigid tetrahedral crystal—making diamonds one of the hardest substances on the planet. On the Mohs scale—which measures the ability of a harder material to scratch a softer material—they rank 10 out of 10 in hardness.
Why diamond is harder than graphite?
We know that both diamond and graphite are made of carbon. However, diamond is harder than graphite because of the carbon atoms in a diamond form 4 covalent bonds in the form of tetrahedral structure. While the carbon atoms in the graphite form 4 covalent bonds in the form of hexagonal structure.
Why is it that graphite is more soft than diamond?
Now, the part that makes the graphite softer than diamond is that the flat ‘sheets’ of carbon are bonded together by a much weaker bond than covalent bonds , called Van Der Waals forces. These are the bonds that break first to make graphite a soft substance.
Why is graphite so strong?
As previously touched upon, graphite has a planar, layered structure; each layer being made up of carbon atoms linked together in a hexagonal lattice. These links, or covalent bonds as they are more technically known, are extremely strong, and the carbon atoms are separated by only 0.142 nanometres.